Universal screening is an important feature of an RtI model. RtI screening is designed to identify those students who are at-risk for learning difficulties. This section provides information regarding the critical screening features and procedures that need to be addressed with the RtI process. Also included are screening tools that may prove helpful to schools as they implement universal screening within their building.

Articles

Title School-Wide Screening
Author

National Resource Center of Learning Disabilities (2006)

Summary

Section 1 of a five part RtI manual authored by the National Resource of Learning Disabilities defines screening and explains its critical features. Section 1 includes tools and tasklists designed to support an RtI, school-wide screening process. It also provides a list of resources schools will need to implement an RtI school-wide screening process with fidelity.

Links

RTIManualSection1.pdf

Title Screening for Mathematical Difficulties in K-3 Students
Author

Gersten, R., Clarke, B.S., & Jordan, N.C. (2007)

Summary

Published by the Center on Instruction, this document examines the efficacy of existing screening measures used at the primary level. It describes at length, the essential features needed to screen students in grades K-3 for mathematical difficulties.

Links

ScreeningforMathematicsDifficultiesinK-3Students.pdf

Title Screening for Reading Problems in Grades 1 Through 3: An Overview of Select Measures
Author

Johnson, E.S. & Pool, J.L.

Summary

A concise article that briefly describes four different screening processes (e.g., direct route, progress monitoring model, risk index model ) that have been used to identify students at risk for reading problems. It provides a list of screening measures schools should consider using for students in grades 1-3. A table of common screening instruments along with their respective psychometric properties serves as a quick reference list for schools investigating this type of assessment tool.

Links

http://www.rtinetwork.org/essential/assessment/screening/screening-for-reading-problems-in-grades-1-through-3

Title Universal Screening for Reading Problems: Why and How Should We Do This?
Author

Jenkins, J., & Johnson, E. (2008)

Summary

A short, concise article that discusses the purpose and nature of screening within the RtI process. It lists factors schools should consider when selecting a screening instrument and identifies the negative consequences when screening procedures are not implemented with fidelity. The article concludes with discussion of screening considerations relative to reading at Kindergarten, grades 1, 2 and beyond.

Links

http://www.rtinetwork.org/essential/assessment/screening/readingproblems

Title Universal Screening Within a Response-to-Intervention Model
Author

Hughes, C., & Dexter, D. (2008)

Summary

This article describes universal screening within an RtI process. It begins with a definition of universal screening followed by a list of characteristics commonly associated with effective screening measures. It identifies common screening tools and discusses the type of student performances that are measured.

Links

http://www.rtinetwork.org/learn/research/universal-screening-within-a-rti-model

Modules

Title Making Data Matter: Using CBM in the RtI Decision-Making Process
Author

Presenter:  Dr. Erica Lembke (2010)
Video and Module developed by: The NYS Reading Resource Center
Sponsored by: NYS RtI TAC

Summary

Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is an assessment approach designed to measure the growth of student proficiency in core educational skills that are predictive of positive school success. This module, video taped from Dr. Lembke's full day presentation in Rochester NY, sponsored by the NYS RtI TAC provides an overview of CBM and discusses how to use CBM screening and progress monitoring data to make instructional decisions within a Response to Intervention (RtI) model. Steps involved in the RtI data based decision making process will be outlined as well as procedures for establishing data-based decision making rules within a tiered intervention system.

Links

http://readingacademy.monroe.edu/course/view.php?id=90

Power Point Presentations

Title Ensuring Fidelity to CBM Protocols
Author

Eckert, T. (2010)

Summary

Many failures of education reforms and practices are attributed to poor implementation.  As schools adopt a RtI model, it is critical that essential RtI components are implemented with integrity.  The focus of this presentation is on CBM implementation fidelity and practices to ensure CBM implementation fidelity in school settings.  The presenter examines how general and special education teachers, reading specialists, literacy coaches, school psychologists, and school administration can ensure CBM implementation fidelity in their respective schools.

Links

NYS_RTI_TAC_Summer_Institute_2010_-_Implementation_Fidelity_-_Eckert.pdf

Title Establishing Cut Points within Universal Screening
Author

Janczak, T.  & Piper, A. (2010)

Summary

Effective RtI implementation begins with a universal screening process administered three times per year to all students.  Presented during the 2010 NYS RtI TAC Summer Institute this presentation examines the infrastructure or logistics involving universal screening and identifies three distinct methods for determining at-risk status.  In addition to providing the steps for establishing cut points, the presenters also focus on how to differentiate between the direct route versus the progress monitoring route within the screening process.  

Links

Establishing_Cut_Points_within_Un_screening_and_PM_TJAP.pdf

Title RTI and Universal Screening: Establishing District Benchmarks
Author

Heistad, D. (2009)

Summary

A webinar-based presentation which defines comprehensive screening and identifies psychometric properties associated with accurate and effective screening measures. The presentation provides a rationale for establishing local norms based on screening data and describes the types of data obtained from a comprehensive screening process. A discussion of how screening data is used within the RtI process concludes the presentation.

Links

http://www.rti4success.org/video/rti-and-universal-screening-establishing-district-benchmarks

Title School-Wide Screening
Author

Dr. Hugh W. Catts – University of Kansas (2006)

Summary

A power point presentation which provides a rationale for universal screening within the RtI process and a discussion regarding the negative consequence of inappropriate screening procedures and tools. It identifies several factors schools need to consider when selecting a screening tool. The presentation concludes with a detailed description of several screening tools with a specific focus on their psychometric properties.

Links

catts_screening.pdf

Title The Role of Assessment within a RtI Framework: Focus on Screening and Progress Monitoring
Author

Hintze, J. (2010)

Summary

RtI involves the systematic and regular use of data to make decisions about a student’s relative risk status and response to instruction or intervention.  In this keynote presented at the 2010 NYS RtI TAC Summer Institute, Dr. Hintze discusses the purpose of universal screening and progress monitoring within a RtI model and their significance within a multi-tiered intervention model.

Links

NYS_RTI_TAC_Keynote_HINTZE.pdf

Title The Role of the RtI Literacy Coach in Universal Screening and Progress Monitoring
Author

Fitzsimmons, M., DePalma, D., Rynski, A. (2010)

Summary

RtI coaches are critical in analyzing data, targeting school grade level and individual goals, providing professional development, modeling in the classroom and assisting administration and teachers with data-driven instructional decisions.  This presentation delivered at the 2010 NYS RtI TAC Summer Institute provides an overview of the roles of the RtI coach at the beginning of the school year specifically in universal screening, PM and Tier 1. Guidelines for facilitating RtI leadership team discussions are also addressed.  

Links

The_Role_of_the_Coach_in_School-wide_Screening_and_PM_monday.pdf

Screening Tools

Title Screening Reading Tools Chart
Author

National Center on Response to Intervention (2009)

Summary

Designed to assist school personnel with decisions regarding selection of screening measures, the Screening Reading Tools Chart provides information regarding the technical adequacy of five screening tools: AIMWeb, DIBELS, Scholastic, Star, and STEEP. Additional information regarding administration procedures and protocol and cost of each program is also provided.

Links

http://www.rti4success.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1091&Itemid=139

Webcasts

Title Data-Based Decision Making
Author

The RtI Action Network

Summary

This webcast aired April 2009, featuring Dr. Lynn Fuchs, Dr. Joe Kovaleski, and Mr. John Carruth.  A discussion opens with basics of data-based decision making and becomes more detailed about data types, frequency of assessment, and interpreting data.  A portion of the discussion addresses data meetings and when the data signals a change in intervention. 

Links

http://www.rtinetwork.org/images/content/downloads/professional%20development/forums/4-30-09/RTI_Webcast.swf

Websites

Title Center on Instruction
Summary

This website provides information relative to NCLB and best practices in literacy, math, science, Special Education and English Language Learning. Information provided includes articles, briefs, reports, powerpoint presentations and webinars that available free of charge for downloading.

Links

http://www.centeroninstruction.org/index.cfm

Title National Center on Response to Intervention
Summary

Established through a partnership between the American Institutes for Research, Vanderbilt University and the University of Kansas and funded by the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Special Education Programs, the NCRtI provides technical assistance designed to build capacity for RtI implementation at the state level. The center provides information in the form of articles, podcasts. Webinars, powerpoint presentations on a variety of topics and issues involving the RtI implementation and evaluation process.

Links

http://www.rti4success.org

Title National Center on Student Progress Monitoring
Summary

This site has downloadable articles, power point presentations, Frequently Asked Question documents, and additional resources about screening, student progress monitoring, Curriculum-Based Measurement, applying decision making to IEPs and other research-based topics. All publications are designed to inform and assist audiences in implementing student progress monitoring at the classroom, building, local or state level. In addition, the Center has established a standard process to evaluate the scientific rigor of commercially available tools to monitor student progress.

Links

http://studentprogress.org/

This Web site is made possible through a contract (#C009953) between Buffalo State College and New York State Education Department P-12, Office of Special Education. The contents of this Web site do not necessarily reflect views or policies of the NYS Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the NYS Education Department.